Emile Durkeim, describes how societies begin in simple forms of interaction and are held together by solidarity and likenesses. Those with new ideas and values should not be completely stifled by social control. Marx was seen as an economic determinist, as he believed that the functioning and running of society was based upon the economy. In most cases it is both negatively valued and provokes hostile reactions. Functionalists believe that crime is the effect of inadequate socialisation. Left Realists describe themselves as socialists as they support the reform of society. The Division of Labor in Society 3.
Left Realists note that in. The point at which a crime is commited or a boundery is crossed would be determined by the culture of each individual society. Cohen believed that crime was a result of status frustration; this was the result of an extensive study on lower working class boys, who he noted blamed wider society for their lack of success in attaining the same successes as those in mainstream society. This is because there may be cultural differences which prevent him from understanding the behaviours displayed in non-western society. Also Box believes that the bourgeoisie are not controlled under law, as they are the law-makers, and they create the laws specifically to victimise the proletariat.
They emphasise on the value consensus and see the family as being universal. During the 2011 riots in London, Laura Johnson, the daughter of a billionaire, stole £5000 worth of goods. These are said to be as a consequence of the society we live…. They see society based on conflict between social classes, and social inequality caused by capitalism as the driving force behind crime. Religion misleads the poor into believing that their suffering is virtuous and that they will be favoured in the afterlife.
Middle The punishment of the offenders can act as a deterrent to others. He says that sickness is seen as deviant and has the potential for destabilising society. Adaptation and social change, for Durkheim, refers to all change starting with an act of deviance. This essay will assess how functionalists view point of the family by exploring Murdock, Comte, Parsons and Durkheim, the founder of functionalism, ideas and evaluating… Assess the strengths and weaknesses of the functionalist approach to society 33 marks Functionalism is seen as a macro-scale approach to society; it sees society as a whole rather than looking at parts of it. Sources may include: Durkheim; Merton; Cohen; Cloward and Ohlin; Miller; Matza; Hirschi; Box; Becker; Lea and Young; Downes. These concepts have been useful in explaining why people act in certain ways in certain situations; therefore, the labelling theory is effective in the study of society.
Words: 964 - Pages: 4. Parsons argued that certain things can be destabilising to society, for example when people do not conform to what is expected. He said that crime was largely committed as a result of individuals not being able to achieve the goals impressed upon them by society in his case the American Dream. However, there are problems with Durkheim? Merton instead argued that crime was caused by the strains and tensions found within a modern 1123 words - 5 pages Evaluate Marxist explanations of Crime and Deviance Labelling theory paved the way in understanding how deviance was something defined by social processes. For example, they can influence public perception and definitions of what establishes crime and deviance, deviants or non-deviants.
Adaptation and change for Druthers is when an individual has an idea or belief which is seen to be deviant by rest of the members of society, they fight and challenge the existing norms and values, in time there values may give way to a new culture and morality and not seen as deviant anymore such as cohabiting couples would be seen as deviant due to the couples not been married but in current times it is not deviant as it is more popular in society. Conformity, in which people accept the goals of society and the legitimate ways of achieving these goals, even though they clearly will not be able to achieve them. Marxists would also say that as the ruling class own the means of production, laws are created in order to protect their property and victimise the working class. Interestingly, the closer it happens to be to where we are, the more interested we become as opposed to something happening out of state, or further off in another country. One way that Marxists explain crime is through the law. An example of this is the Fregan movement, who eat food that supermarkets can no longer sell, but is still edible. For a functionalist society to work several key aspects have to be in place.
It achieves this by sacralising core values such as individualism, meritocracy and self-discipline which promotes value consensus. However theses subcultural theories cannot always explain the trend in crime and deviance as there are many contributing factors as to why crime and deviance happens. They believe that because of capitalism as the unequal divide between classes, committing crime is sometimes the only way people can live. Jock Young uses the concepts. Therefore it could lead to results that may be misrepresentative of all viewpoints on religion.
Overall, the functionalist view of religion is useful as it considers the majority of factors that affect the. Durkheim used the religion of Aborigines to develop his argument. Taylor put forward the new criminology theory: a fully social theory of deviance. Words: 1069 - Pages: 5. Evaluate different approaches to supporting positive behaviour. Modelling; this approach is extremely important as children learn some of their behaviour from others so it is important to role model good behaviour which includes being polite, being patience and showing consideration for others.
Functionalist theories began to emerge after the industrial revolution in the 18th century. Positivists think that suicide can be explained simply by looking at official statistics and there are distinct reasons for every suicide. However, Durkheim's analysis has been criticised as he only looked at small pre-industrial societies so his views do not apply to complex modern societies. Conflict subcultures is seen to develop in areas where there is a high form of population turnover which results to loosely organized gangs, young men then realise their frustration at their blocked opportunities therefore using gangs as the source of status. More often than not status frustration is resolved through creating or joining a subculture because it offers and alternative status hierarchy.