Chemistry with Fancy Lights We developed for our client AgroLiquid that works as a simulation of the Haber Process. To obtain a reasonable yield and favourable rate, high pressures, moderate temperatures and a catalyst are used. Adding a catalyst does not produce any greater percentage of ammonia in the equilibrium mixture. They formed ammonia drop by drop from pressurized air. That will cause the pressure to fall again.
Manufacture of ammonia The manufacture of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen takes place in two main stages: a the manufacture of hydrogen b the synthesis of ammonia the Haber Process The manufacture of hydrogen involves several distinct processes. This process was also of interest to the German chemical industry as Germany was preparing for World War I and nitrogen compounds were needed for explosives. The second was to Carl Bosch, whose brilliant engineering skills made the process viable on a massive scale, but who waited until 1931 for his award. I only managed to exceed that profit when I did not use any catalysts, but again the reaction time is way too slow and hence senseless. However, putting up the pressure too far is impractical and becomes too expensive. As they are in control of the process and what is happening, it allows them to be more engaged than simply learning the theory behind the reactions.
The catalyst ensures that the reaction is fast enough for a dynamic equilibrium to be set up within the very short time that the gases are actually in the reactor. The system will respond by moving the position of equilibrium to counteract this-producing more heat. The gases, in stoichiometric proportions, are heated and passed under pressure over a catalyst Figure 3. Some modern processes employ a ruthenium catalyst, which is more active than the iron catalyst. The gas mixture now contains about 18% carbon dioxide which is removed by scrubbing the gas with a solution of a base, using one of several available methods. In this case though as a manufacturer, I am trying to produce as much ammonia as possible per day. There is also a massive problem with disposal of the ash.
Hydrogen from naphtha If naphtha is used as the feedstock, an extra reforming stage is needed. As air contains 1% argon, this also accumulates in the synthesis gas. The reaction is ; at increased temperature and atmospheric pressure, the equilibrium quickly switches to the other direction. The equation for this reaction is… The symbol shown in the middle means it is a reversible reaction so the product can decompose back into the reactants. The Tungsten catalyst did yield a fairly high amount of ammonia, however not a very high net profit was made from it and this is again due to the economic implications of energy and production as mentioned. Record concentrations and time in order to extract rate coefficients. Also, the release of nitrogen compounds has had a negative environmental impact.
Note: The conditions of the Haber process must be finely balanced to reach a combination of highest yield and fastest reaction, this is very important because getting this right will make sure this industrial process is as profitable as possible. The carbon dioxide is released on heating the solution in the carbon dioxide stripper. Ruthenium on a graphite surface is a promising one. Do temperature dependent studies to extract Arrhenius parameters. Much work is being done to improve the effectiveness of the catalyst so that pressures as low as 50 atmospheres can be used. A Brief History of Ammonia Production At the beginning of the 20 th century there was a shortage of naturally occurring, nitrogen-rich fertilisers, such as Chile saltpetre, which prompted the German Chemist Fritz Haber, and others, to look for ways of combining the nitrogen in the air with hydrogen to form ammonia, which is a convenient starting point in the manufacture of fertilisers. This simulation allows them to put into practise the knowledge they have regarding this process, and see it work in a simulated factory setting.
Thus, the bulk of the reaction is carried out at high temperature to recover most of the heat. The Fuse School is currently running the Chemistry Journey project - a Chemistry Education project by The Fuse School sponsored by Fuse. However, this does not apply in this case. The position of this dynamic equilibrium can be moved forward by changing the conditions the reaction is done in. The catalyst and increased pressure are the scientific magic behind the process.
Outcomes: H3 - assesses the impact of particular advances in chemistry on the development of technologies H4 - assesses the impacts of applications of chemistry on society and the environment H8 - assesses the range of factors which influence the type and rate of chemical reactions Content: 9. When I did not use any catalysts, the problem was that the time to equilibrate the reactions was atrocious, and very slow. What occurs in each of these steps is described below the figure. Osmium is a much better catalyst for the reaction but is very expensive. The main product is methane together with oxides of carbon, and is then processed by steam reforming, as if it was natural gas, followed by the shift reaction.
By , decreasing the temperature of the reaction mixture favours the formation of ammonia gas: Decreasing the temperature causes the equilibrium position to move to the right resulting in a higher yield of ammonia since the reaction is exothermic releases heat. The catalyst and increased pressure are the scientific magic behind the process. Informational signs offer visitors further explanation of the process and the history behind its development. The gas is then removed at low temperature, where the equilibrium is much more favourable, on the very active but unstable copper catalyst. A Brief History of Ammonia Production At the beginning of the 20 th century there was a shortage of naturally occurring, nitrogen-rich fertilisers, such as Chile saltpetre, which prompted the German Chemist Fritz Haber, and others, to look for ways of combining the nitrogen in the air with hydrogen to form ammonia, which is a convenient starting point in the manufacture of fertilisers.
Reducing the temperature means the system will adjust to minimise the effect of the change, that is, it will produce more heat since energy is a product of the reaction, and will therefore produce more ammonia gas as well. Fritz Haber, a German chemist, and Robert Le Rossignol, a British chemist, demonstrated the first ammonia synthesis process in 1909. Using a , students can answer questions on what the effect of changing the variables is on the system and how to test variables in a controlled way , as well as making graphs on the data obtained. The copper catalyst used in the low temperature stage is very sensitive to high temperatures, and could not operate effectively in the high temperature stage. In order to get as much ammonia as possible in the equilibrium mixture, one needs as low a temperature as possible. This Tungsten catalyst was not as efficient as the iron catalyst, and it also cost more.