He points out that Palestinians still seek the creation of a state of their own — which alongside Israel would form the basis of the so-called two-state solution to the conflict, a formula supported by the international community. MidEastWeb is a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting peace and coexistence in the Middle East. The duplicitous British did not. Although the revolt was relatively minor, with British backing the Arab forces succeeded in dominating the region of the Arabian peninsula, as well as and Damascus. Having graduated from Cambridge, Antonius became a civil servant in the British Mandate administration in Palestine. There are two elements to it and the second element unfortunately has been betrayed. Reflected in the microcosm of the issue of Arab claims to Palestine as it applies to the McMahon-Hussein correspondence, both historians are galvanized in their opinions, clear in their positions and certain of their evidence.
The great majority of these Christians were no doubt Arabs by race, but even so a large residue of foreign Christians and foreign Christian interests remained. I ask God to make easy our purposes and prosper our endeavours. Whatever the illustrious Government of Great Britain finds conformable to its policy on this subject, communicate it to us and specify to us the course we should follow. From Husayn to McMahon, September 9, 1915 To his Excellency the Most Exalted, the Most Eminent-the British High Commissioner in Egypt; may God grant him Success. Both those reports promoted debatable portrayals of history, including a lax representation of the Mandate for Palestine. But in order that this community should have the best prospect of free development and provide a full opportunity for the Jewish people to display its capacities, it is essential that it should know that it is in Palestine as of right and not on sufferance.
Britain's Moment in the , 1914 —1956. The second is that, standing in the face of Turkey which is supported by all the forces of Germany, we do not know what Great Britain and her allies would do if one of the Entente Powers were weakened and obliged to make peace. Memorandum on Palestine by Middle East Department, Colonial Office, para. We beg you to send it with all possible haste. The Arabic translation, which Hussein received, indicated that we were free to make these promises without reference to France. Therefore, they have found it necessary first to discuss this point with the Power in whom they now have their confidence and trust as a final appeal, viz. It must have been apparent to any informed observer that in the event of a victory for the Allied Powers Great Britain would require guarantees precluding the use of Palestinian territory, and particularly of such ports as that of Haifa, for future attacks on Egyptian territory.
One land claimed by two peoples Israel-Palestine remains the unanswered question of the twentieth century. In 1916 the British Commissioner in Egypt, Sir Henry McMahon, had promised the Arab leadership post-war independence for former Ottoman Arab provinces. We have severely defeated the forces which these intriguers had collected against us, and the eyes of the Arabs are now becoming open to the deceit which has been practiced upon them. England to approve the proclamation of an Arab Khalifate of Islam. This article highlights some of the comments made at the time that reveal that British politicians and officials were privately aware of their obligation to offer Palestine to Hussein as a result of the McMahon-Hussein correspondence. The British for whatever reason made a serious diplomatic mistake. However, as has been on several occasions, Sir Henry McMahon himself pointed out in a letter to the Times in 1937 that the claim that Hussein was promised all of the territory described by Bowen.
At the same time we beg you not to embark or send him in a steamer, or officially, the means already arranged being sufficient. From McMahon to Husayn, August 30, 1915 To his Highness the Sherif Hussein. In your desire to hasten the movement we see not only advantages, but grounds of apprehension. A Jewish deputation followed in its place. In return, he believed the British had promised him an independent Arab kingdom across much of present day Saudi Arabia, Syria, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Israel and the Palestinian territories.
With regard to the Vilayets of Aleppo and Beirut, the Government of Great Britain have fully understood and taken careful note of your observations, but, as the interests of our ally, France, are involved in them both, the question will require careful consideration and a further communication on the subject will be addressed to you in due course. With regard to what had been stated in your honoured communication concerning El Iraq as to the matter of compensation for the period of occupation, we, in order to strengthen the confidence of Great Britain in our attitude and in our words and actions, really and veritably, and in order to give her evidence of our certainty and assurance in trusting her glorious Government, leave the determination of the amount to the perception of her wisdom and justice. We are greatly pleased to hear of the action you are taking to win all the Arabs over to our joint cause, and to dissuade them from giving any assistance to our enemies, and we leave it to your discretion to seize the most favourable moment for further and more decided measures. In order to facilitate an agreement and to render a service to Islam, and at the same time to avoid all that may cause Islam troubles and hardships-seeing moreover that we have great consideration for the distinguished qualities and dispositions of the Government of Great Britain-we renounce our insistence on the inclusion of the vilayets of Mersina and Adana in the Arab Kingdom. So — 100 years on — how should we in Wales view the Balfour Declaration? Therefore it is necessary to take these points into consideration in order to avoid a peace being concluded in which the parties concerned may decide the fate of our peoples as if we had taken part in the war without making good our claims to official consideration. The Arabs agreed thinking that Lebanon and northern Palestine was included in the agreement and allied with Britain to defeat the Turks. Fourthly — If one of the parties enters into an aggressive conflict, the other party will assume a neutral attitude, and in case of such party wishing the other to join forces, both to meet and discuss the conditions.
In order to facilitate an agreement and to render a service to Islam, and at the same time to avoid all that may cause Islam troubles and hardships-seeing moreover that we have great consideration for the distinguished qualities and dispositions of the Government of Great Britain-we renounce our insistence on the inclusion of the vilayets of Mersina and Adana in the Arab Kingdom. In this great cause Arabia is now associated, and God grant that the result of our mutual efforts and co-operation will bind us in a lasting friendship to the mutual welfare and happiness of us all. But this promise was given subject to a reservation made in the same letter, which excluded from its scope, among other territories, the portions of Syria lying to the west of the District of Damascus. It is therefore inconceivable that Sir Henry McMahon should have intended to give the Sharif an unconditional promise that Palestine was to be included in, the area of Arab independence. It was something they desperately, deeply wanted. But the Jewish immigrants would develop the country. Smith definitely holds the anti-Zionist position in regard to Palestine.
Was not this a good gift which would impress more than anything else on the Arab population that the Zionists were their friends and helpers, not their expellers and expropriators, and that the earth was a generous mother, that Palestine had before it a bright future, and that there was enough for all? As regards the northern parts, we note with satisfaction your desire to avoid anything which might possibly injure the alliance of Great Britain and France. Antonius, deeply involved in anti-Zionism at the time, published his work to strengthen the Arab argument against the proposed Jewish sovereignty. The Arab nation has a strong belief that after this war is over the Turks under German influence will direct their efforts to provoke the. Fifthly — The money required should be sent at once to the Governor of Port Sudan, and a confidential agent will be sent by us to receive it, either all at once, or in two installments, according as he is able, and this S is the secret sign to be recognized for accepting the man. Thirdly — For the security of this Arab independence and the certainty of such preference of economic enterprises, both high contracting parties will offer mutual assistance, to the best ability of their military and naval forces, to face any foreign Power which may attack either party. The first decision made on Palestine was that Transjordan should be separated from Western Palestine, and that the Jews would be able to settle the land from the Mediterranean Sea to the River Jordan.
We fear that the Arab nation will then be left alone in the face of Turkey together with her allies, but we would not at all mind if we were to face the Turks alone. I have, therefore, lost no time in informing the Government of Great Britain of the contents of your letter, and it is with great pleasure that I communicate to you on their behalf the following statement, which I am confident you will receive with satisfaction:- The two districts of Mersina and Alexandretta and portions of Syria lying to the west of the districts of Damascus, Homs, Hama and Aleppo cannot be said to be purely Arab, and should be excluded from the limits demanded. We have heard that Ibn Rashid has been selling large quantities of camels to the Turks, which are being sent up to Damascus. Although the debate within the scholarly world maintains some sense of respect and professionalism, the tense Zionist, anti-Zionist feeling often breaks down into ad-hominem attacks. We Moslems will follow the footsteps of the Commander of the Faithful Omar ibn Khattab, and other Khalifs succeeding him, who ordained in the laws of the Moslem Faith that Moslems should treat the Christians as they treat themselves.