The sections appear in a journal style paper in the following prescribed order: Experimental process Section of Paper What did I do in a nutshell? However, while theories and methods are often related, it is important that, as a researcher, you deliberately separate them in order to avoid your theories playing a disproportionate role in shaping what outcomes your chosen methods produce. The levels of the self-esteem variable were created from participants' responses to a self-esteem scale by a median split analysis. Describe how you plan to obtain an accurate assessment of relationships, patterns, trends, distributions, and possible contradictions found in the data. For clarity, when a large amount of detail must be presented, information should be presented in sub-sections according to topic. The median age for males was 27.
It is appropriate to report, parenthetically, the source vendor and catalog number for reagents used, e. The following list of main subsections in the Methods section is by no means exhaustive; authors might use subheadings more clearly to describe their research. Specialized equipment, especially if it is something that is complex or created for a niche purpose, should be given greater detail. Authors usually write the text of the results section based upon the sequence of Tables and Figures. Use the active voice when possible, but much of it may require passive constructions. What did I find out? This is the system we will use.
Explain the procedures step-by-step by splitting the main section into multiple sub-sections. However, there are instances when it is appropriate to compare or contrast your results with findings from previous and similar studies. Introduction For many students, writing the is the first part of the process, setting down the direction of the paper and laying out exactly what the research paper is trying to achieve. The turntable was rotated 90 degrees by hand. Show data in figures rather than in tables or in text. Remember to use the past tense throughout - the work being reported is done, and was performed in the past, not the future.
We can give less general advice about the Methods section than about any other part of a research article. Your methods for gathering data should have a clear connection to your research problem. Structure : The structure of the Introduction can be thought of as an inverted triangle - the broadest part at the top representing the most general information and focusing down to the specific problem you studied. If the student refused, then he or she was thanked and not bothered any further. First, it is usually helpful to structure the methods section by: 1. For , it is a presentation of the numerical results and data, whereas for it should be a broader discussion of trends, without going into too much detail. Give an outline of established procedures and refer the reader to previous published accounts for details; for new procedures show enough detail to allow the reader to reproduce the procedures successfully.
Scientific writing is direct and orderly. If so, how do you interpret your findings? Then describe the assay for each under its own sub-subheading. If you have performed experiments at a particular location or lab because it is the only place to do it, or one of a few, then you should note that in your methods and identify the lab or facility. In situations when multiple appendices are used, the Table and Figure numbering must indicate the appendix number as well see. Instead of using only descriptive text for your scholarly article, consider other visual ways and representations that improve the academic writing of your research paper.
In the mouse behavior paper, for example, you would begin the Introduction at the level of mating behavior in general, then quickly focus to mouse mating behaviors and then hormonal regulation of behavior. These participants ranged in age from 19 to 31 with a mean age of 19. Describe the methods you use to collect data for your qualitative research paper in the first part of the methods section. Therefore, enough key information e. Most academic libraries support the Citation Index - an index which is useful for tracking a line of inquiry forward in time. Learn, as soon as possible, how to find the primary literature research journals and review articles rather than depending on reference books. Introspectively engage in an ongoing dialectic between the application of theories and methods to help enable you to use the outcomes from your methods to interrogate and develop new theories, or ways of framing conceptually the research problem.
These should be formatted as discussed previously see , but are numbered in a separate sequence from those found in the body of the paper. Explaining how measurements were made and what calculations were performed 5. Independent predictor variables: list them. These negative results that do not support a particular hypothesis should be noted in the results section, and then explained in the Discussion section. Protocol Design The research protocol is the sequence of manipulations and measurement procedures that make up the experiment. This statement is provided to the journal editor in a cover letter when the manuscript is submitted for review. List substantial sources of funding for the project.
Problem Blindness It is almost a given that you will encounter problems when collecting or generating your data, or, gaps will exist in existing data or archival materials. The complexity of scientific inquiry necessitates that the writing of the methods be clear and orderly to avoid confusion and ambiguity. If you intend to submit a paper to Sportscience, you should download the template from the Information for Authors page at the Sportscience site. For example: The 28-item Role Attitudes in Marriage Scale Jacobson, 1951 was used to measure attitudes toward spousal roles in marriage see Appendix. University of Washington; Denscombe, Martyn. This allows other researchers to reproduce your experiment if they want and to assess alternative methods that might produce differing results.