The city is no gainer by such a system, since fear deprives it of its advisers; although in truth, if our speakers are to make such assertions, it would be better for the country if they could not speak at all, as we should then make fewer blunders. Is this a simplicity that the historian would seem to want to fight for? As for Cleon's idea that in punishment the claims of justice and expediency can both be satisfied, facts do not confirm the possibility of such a combination. He finished by asking Athenians to fundamentally question what is right and just and look to moderation rather than aggressive punishment. However, this rejection had been prior to the outbreak of the , which created an opportunity for the Mytilenians, who sent an envoy to Olympia in 428 B. Again, was there ever city rebelling that did not believe that it possessed either in itself or in its alliances resources adequate to the enterprise? The other party whom had sent off as the prime movers in the rebellion, were upon 's motion put to death by the Athenians, the number being rather more than a thousand. In 428 , the Mytilenean government planned a rebellion in concert with , Boeotia, and certain other cities on the island, and began preparing to revolt by fortifying the city and laying in supplies for a prolonged war.
On , meanwhile, the arrival of 1,000 Athenian hoplites allowed Athens to complete the investment of Mytilene by walling it in on land. The Mytileneans offered to remain loyal if the Athenians would withdraw their fleet from Lesbos. In an anecdote that some have connected with the Mytilene affair, Plutarch reports that Paches killed himself during a trial at some point after his command at. Still other scholars take the second approach but conclude that Thucydides strayed from this approach over his writing career; a number of schemes for dating the authorship of the various speeches has also been proposed, without any gaining a preponderance of support. As things are at present, in all the cities the people is your friend, and either does not revolt with the oligarchy, or, if forced to do so, becomes at once the enemy of the insurgents; so that in the war with the hostile city you have the masses on your side. Instead, he urged the Athenians to spare the Mytilenians in an effort to create an alliance. The next summer the Peloponnesians sent off the forty-two ships for , under Alcidas, their high admiral, and themselves and their allies invaded Attica, their object being to distract the Athenians by a double movement, and thus to make it less easy for them to act against the fleet sailing to Mitylene.
The final form of the citation depends on whether or not the referenced debate has been published. The Mytilenian Revolt gave Athens the opportunity and the justification it needed to seize the island of Lesbos and helped strengthen its position of power. Though I prove them ever so guilty, I shall not, therefore, advise their death, unless it be expedient; nor though they should have claims to indulgence, shall I recommend it, unless it be dearly for the good of the country. The next day, the Athenians realized the unprecedented brutality of their actions and some became hesitant about the hurried decision to kill and enslave the citizens of Mytilene. What would you say differently to the Athenians to help them see the Melians' point? The Mytilenians began preparing for the revolt by filling in their harbours, erecting fortifications, building additional , and importing extra grain. The Mytileneans, therefore, began strengthening their fortifications and sent for mercenaries and supplies from the Black Sea region.
Works Cited Entry for Published Debates Reference list entries for published debates follow a format similar to published interviews. The next information included is the location of the debate, followed by the day, month and year of the presentation. This is certain, that all attacked you without distinction, although they might have come over to us and been now again in possession of their city. Three of the other states on the island, Antissa, Eresus, and Pyrrha, had oligarchic governments. Alternatively, the turn to Diodotus' rational interest over Cleon's appeal for just vengeance may mark the beginnings of the decline of appeals to justice and decline of the culture of argument in Athens. If the sanctions imposed by Athens on an unsuccessful revolt were not very dreadful, the incentives to risk a revolt would rise. Luckily they met with no contrary wind, and the first ship making no haste upon so horrid an errand, while the second pressed on in the manner described, the first arrived so little before them, that Paches had only just had time to read the decree, and to prepare to execute the sentence, when the second put into port and prevented the massacre.
The Athenians also took possession of the towns on the continent belonging to the Mitylenians, which thus became for the future subject to Athens. Still, considering the magnitude of the interests involved, and the position of affairs, we orators must make it our business to look a little farther than you who judge offhand; especially as we, your advisers, are responsible, while you, our audience, are not so. Let them now therefore be punished as their crime requires, and do not, while you condemn the aristocracy, absolve the people. In this way successful orators would be least tempted to sacrifice their convictions to popularity, in the hope of still higher honours, and unsuccessful speakers to resort to the same popular arts in order to win over the multitude. Indictment and recall of Alcibiades. Cleon's reputation was violent and ruthless; Thucydides describes Cleon as nothing less than a monster who ruled with brutality. Thucydides documented many detailed events that occurred over the course of the.
On the other hand, the narrative juxtaposed, as it is, right next to Pericles' praise of Athens in the Funeral Oration, seems to play a macabre counterpoint to the orator's idealistic speech, and to force us to contemplate the plague as a kind of metaphor for political dysfunction and stasis. In-text citations for unpublished debates should include the last name of the participating debaters. In the debate, she regaled us with her practicality and returned repeatedly to the need for realpolitik. The most famous part of the narrative is that having to do with stasis as a kind of Panhellenic i. At this point, Cleon steps onto the stage of Athenian history.
The fate of those of their neighbours who had already rebelled and had been subdued was no lesson to them; their own prosperity could not dissuade them from affronting danger; but blindly confident in the future, and full of hopes beyond their power though not beyond their ambition, they declared war and made their decision to prefer might to right, their attack being determined not by provocation but by the moment which seemed propitious. After that, the title of the publication in which the debate was published should appear, displayed as either underlined or italicized, with the reference listing concluding with the city of publication, publisher, publication date and media type, such as print, web or film. The Athenians declare, extrapolating from Diodotus, that the sole law of human nature, and thus the central rule of international relations, is that of power; and since they are stronger than the Melians, they have every right to expect them to bow to their demands. Towards the close of the same winter, Salaethus, a Lacedaemonian, was sent out in a galley from Lacedaemon to. But no, they thought it safer to throw in their lot with the aristocracy and so joined their rebellion! Arrived at , reduced Pyrrha and Eresus; and finding the Lacedaemonian, Salaethus, in hiding in the town, sent him off to Athens, together with the Mitylenians that he had placed in Tenedos, and any other persons that he thought concerned in the revolt. After realizing the hopelessness of the situation, the oligarchs and the demos jointly initiated negotiations with Athens. All of Lesbos, other than Methymna, took arms against Athens, but Lesbos lost ground upon the arrival of more Athenian troops.
Since this plan was crafted in the open Athenian assembly, however, it was impossible to keep it secret, and the Mytileneans had ample warning of the fleet's approach. Finally, the Spartan Salaethus arrived and raised morale by reassuring the Mytilenians that the Peloponnesians were going to invade Attica and promised to supply them with a fleet in the spring. The Mytilenian Revolt See main article:. I think the two things most opposed to good counsel are haste and passion; haste usually goes hand in hand with folly, passion with coarseness and narrowness of mind. One faction, led by Cleon, advocated executing all of the men in the city and enslaving the women and children, while another faction one spokesman was Diodotus preferred more moderate treatment in which only men who had been identified as ringleaders would be executed. The Athenians decreed that all adult male Mytilenians be put to death and the women and children be enslaved, but on the next day, they reconsidered.