Identifying potential members can be difficult because organizations may not perceive the need to join together or may not know enough about each other to make membership choices. From a legal- institutional study Comparative Politics came to be transformed into a behavioural, process- oriented, functional and scientific study of all political systems in terms of their structures, functions, environments and development processes. These approaches mainly deals with the formal aspects of government and politics. It originally concentrated on the development and operation of legislatures, executives and judiciaries. Both of them have viewed politics in the light of interest group activity.
Ludwig Von Bertallanfy is considered as the earliest advocate of the general systems theory. Livestock were always grazed out of doors, and managed just enough so that the offspring could be sold for some sort of profit. Policy regarding production and distribution, though within the jurisdiction of economics, is always taken up by the government. He wanted to establish that politics and morality are not an etheric concepts. These approaches were mainly associated with the traditional outlook of politics which underlined the study of the state and government.
There is also a possibility that the norms could not be fulfilled. Many of them have been successful, but not all. They have developed sophisticated way to study electoral behaviour of people. It is concerned with important regularities, similarities and differences in the working of political behaviour. The main subject of Plato's writings was to define the nature of an ideal society.
Financial, human resources, operational, technical, and logistical inventories are evaluated along with other legally binding issues. Insufficiency of resources and inequality of power between different groups lead them to the point of dissatisfaction and this creates a situation of conflict. The success and failure of Western institutions, when introduced in other countries, can easily be conceived. The general environment consists of all external forces that can influence an organization. Among political scientists, David Easton has been the first to apply this theory to political analysis.
Nevertheless, after sometime, it began to be realized that unlike natural sciences, generalizations could not be made in the field of social sciences, as the study of man in the societal framework was a far more complex pursuit than the study of objects in the natural sciences. Customarily, the study of politics was subjugated by philosophical reflections on universal political values that were regarded as essential to the just state and the good state. It is, therefore, concerned with significant regularities, similarities and differences in the working of political institutions and in the patterns of political behaviour. Farmers were highly dependent on climate and the weather to be able to bring in some profit margin or to help put food on the table. Finally, we review the different ways that organizations can respond to their environments. The political philosophers supporting these approaches and raised questions such 'what should be an ideal state? Many other thinkers have depended upon historical facts for the analysis of politics. They had no intention to propagate ideas which can change society.
A wide-ranging approach is more desirable as researchers embark on description or analysis of political events and issues. Communication Theory Approach: This approach examines how one segment of a system affects another by sending messages or information. The scope of these plans depends on how integrated the organizations will be. This studies the behaviour, attitude etc. A researcher must make use of refined tools like sample surveys, mathematical models, simulation.
Psychology of man is that man wants to live with others. Any sociological analysis of society without its political orientation is bound to be incomplete. Machiavelli and Hobbes wrote with the only purpose of supporting the status quo. Such facts are used in political communication, decision making and game theory. The post-behavioral researcher is one who makes value judgments that guide his or her research, uses the scientific or other technique to increase knowledge on the subject, and then becomes an advocate of social change based on the new knowledge. Researchers want to know not only what is happening, but also why a particular incident occurs at a particular time.
The normative approach stressed by Plato, Aristotle, and Rousseau etc has assumed the form and colour of Utopia. When the traditionalists were writing the nature of politics, the interdependence of national and international politics was not unknown to them and it is their failure not to recognise if. Machiavelli and Hobbes wrote to support royal absolutism. Those who do not really want their suitors would not hesitate on letting them know of this fact. Institutional approach: There is a strong belief that philosophy, history and law have bestowed to the study of politics and it is in the field of institutional approaches. Such neutrality can enhance change agents' ability to mediate conflicts among members.
All parties must be familiar with its functionality and take full advantage of it. Disclosing unimportant information at trade shows or forgoing superior profits can make it difficult for competitors to identify an organization's strengths. He stressed economic aspect of life. In other words, norms are easy of locating the responsibility. Huntington: He was an influential political scientist, contributed in the whole field of political science, from the deeply theoretical to the intensely applied. These two classes of environments are called the task environment and the general environment, respectively. Comparative Politics Block 7 Objective 2: Approaches to the study of comparative politics We have already introduced you to the three basic approaches to the study of politics: traditional, behavioral, and post-behavioral.
Write data to the file. Gabriel Almond was an advocate of this approach. According to this definition family, government and state and all types of organisations which have flourished within the states are institutions. Modern political scientists have made a broad classification of the approaches. Rather, an ideal and moral body politic can be made a real one through the selfless administration by a philosopher-king.